Pumps in hot tubs and spas have two functions: Circulation of water through the filter and heater and to power the jets. Most hot tubs and spas use two-speed pumps; the same pump circulates water and powers the jets. On low speed, these pumps use as little as 150–170 watts and cost only a few dollars per month. The bigger the pump, the more power in the message, right! Wrong. What gives a firm massage then? Large volume jets. The larger the jet nozzle, the higher it is a GPM rating. We determine a pump’s size by adding the total nozzle area of the jets is expected to power. Because there are so many different sizes of hydrotherapy jets, there is no hard and fast rule concerning pump size. In general, large jets (15–20 GPM) require 1/4 Hp per jet. Manufacturers often use two or more pumps to power individual groups of jets if the total jet area is extremely large. This practice generally saves money for everybody. We match pumps to the size and number of jets they are expected to run. Once the hydrotherapy system has been designed, increasing horsepower has no benefit on jet action. Bigger pumps only operate more jets, they don’t increase pressure! If you need more vigorous hydrotherapy action, use high GPM jets. Expect to pay more for a large number of high GPM jets and the required larger pump.